Juniperus oxycedrus Linnaeus, 1753
Common names: Prickly Juniper, Prickly Cedar, Cade Juniper [En], Cade, Genévrier cade [Fr], Stekelige jeneverbes [Nl], Zedern-Wacholder [De], Ginepro rosso [It], Enebro rojo [Es], Άρκευθος οξύκεδρος [Gr], Katran Ardıcı, Ardıçı [Tu]
IUCN Status : LC (Least Concern)
Yamanlar, İZMİR ● Turkey
Description: The Juniperus oxycedrus tree is very variable in shape, forming a spreading shrub 2–3 m tall to a small erect tree 10–15 m tall. It has needle-like leaves in whorls of three; the leaves are green, 5–20 mm long and 1–2 mm broad, with a double white stomatal band (split by a green midrib) on the inner surface. It is usually dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to orange-red with a variable pink waxy coating; they are spherical, 7–12 mm diameter, and have three or six fused scales in 1-2 whorls, three of the scales with a single seed. The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the cones, digesting the fleshy scales and passing the hard seeds in their droppings. The pollen cones are yellow, 2–3 mm long, and fall soon after shedding their pollen in late winter or early spring.
Habitat: Dry hills, sandy and rocky places, from sea level up to 1600 m altitude.
Distribution: Native across the Mediterranean region from Morocco and Portugal, north to southern France, east to westernmost Iran, and south to Lebanon and Israel.
Uses: The plant yields the essential oil 'Oil of Cade' by destructive distillation of the wood. It is used externally in the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and chronic eczema. It is a good parasiticide in cases of psora and favus. It is also antiseptic.
Cade oil is a well known anti-parasitic, antimicrobial, antiseptic and vulnerary. It is said to be very effective for skin complaints, dermatitis, eczema, and haemorrhoids.
Extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves and stems were tested on animals and found to have significant anti-inflammatory effects on rats. Some analgesic effects were also noted. Spasmolytic properties and effects on arterial blood pressure were also reported.
Wikipedia, Juniperus oxycedrus
Plants For A Future
http://www.uicnmed.org/nabp/database/HTM/PDF/p133.pdf> A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa