Polygonia c-album Linnaeus, 1758
Common names: Comma [En], Robert-le-Diable [Fr], Gehakkelde aurelia [Nl], C-Falter [De], Vanessa c-bianco [It], C blanca [Es], ∆ασική βανέσσα [Gr], Yırtık Pırtık, Virgül [Tu]
Meise, BRABANT ● Belgium
Description: The Comma has a white marking on its underwings resembling a comma. The wings have a distinctive ragged edge, apparently a cryptic form as the butterfly resembles a fallen leaf. The caterpillars are also cryptic, resembling a bird dropping.
• P. c. c-album Linnaeus, 1758
• P. c. agnicula Moore, 1872 – Nepal
• P. c. asakurai Nakahara, 1920 – Taiwan
• P. c. extensa Leech, 1892 – West China, Central China
• P. c. imperfecta Blachier, 1908 – North Africa
• P. c. kultukensis Kleinschmidt, 1929 –Transbaikalia
• P. c. hamigera Butler, 1877 – Ussuri
• P. c. koreana Bryk, 1946 – Korea
• P. c. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1915 – Sakhalin
Biology: The species survives the winter in the adult stage, and adults are of two forms. The form that overwinters before reproducing has dark undersides of the wings, whereas the form that develops directly to sexual maturation has lighter coloured wing undersides. Both forms can arise from eggs laid by the same female, depending mainly on the photoperiods experienced by the larvae, but also with an influence of host plants, temperature and sex of individuals.
The primary larval foodplant is Common Nettle (Urtica dioica), Currants (Ribes spp.), Elms (Ulmus spp.), Hop (Humulus lupulus) and Willows (Salix spp.) are also used.
The male butterfly sets up a territory, often on the sunny side of a woodland margin or at the junction of two woodland rides. Here he will sit on a favourite perch awaiting a passing female and will fly up to investigate any passing insect. The male will also make short flights - always returning to the same perch. Even when disturbed, the male will fly off for several metres or so before predictably returning to exactly the same leaf. When egg-laying the female makes short fluttering flights over the foodplant, stopping every few feet, landing on the foodplant and, if suitable, laying a single green egg.
Habitat: woodland rides, country lanes, gardens.
Distribution: Europe and temperate Asia to Japan and south to Morocco.
Wikipedia, Polygonia c-album