Dactylorhiza baumanniana Hölzinger & Künkele, 1983
Common names: Baumann's Dactylorhiza [En].
IUCN Status: NT (Near Threatened)
Grammos Mount, KASTORIA ● Greece
Description: Recently described Dactylorhiza with deep magenta, rarely lilac flowers and basal leaves spotted and usually erect. It is distinguished from the relative Dactylorhiza smolikana, by having more dark flower colors and the characteristic spots on the basal leaves. Also from Dactylorhiza pindica, due to the more lax inflorescence, the darker flowers and the shorter size of the stem and leaves.
Biology: It flowers from May to July.
Habitat: Marshy hollows, stream banks and seepages. It grows in damp to cool, acid to neutral soils in full sun to semi-shade. (Phitos et al. 1995, Delforge 1995).
Distribution: Dactylorhiza baumanniana is endemic to Bulgaria and Greece, quite local and somewhat abundant. It has been recorded throughout the Pindus Mountains and from one site in the Peloponnese. It also occurs in southern Bulgaria and probably grows in other mountain ranges of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This species is found from 1,000 - 1,800 m altitude. (Phitos et al. 1995, Delforge 1995). The distribution of the species appears in small isolated populations.
The area of occupancy of the species is 55 km² but there is currently no evidence for the number of locations or if the populations are severely fragmented. Therefore, Dactylorhiza baumanniana is assessed as Near Threatened approaching Criterion B2ab(ii,iii,v).
Major Threats: The habitat of Dactylorhiza baumanniana has been changed for the worst recently through soil drainage, tourist development, reservoir construction, intensive grazing and insufficient water supply to the wet meadows as well as pollution. Within the genus Dactylorhiza the tendency of hybridization is enormous. Therefore, Dactylorhiza baumanniana is threatened by extensive hybridization with other taxa of the genus (Phitos et al. 1995, Delforge 1995).
Rankou H., 2011. Dactylorhiza baumanniana. In: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2.