Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Brown, 1813
Common names: Fragrant orchid [En], Gymnadenia moucheron, Orchis moucheron [Fr], Grote muggenorchis [Nl], Mücken Handwurtz [De], Manina rosea [It], Γυμναδενία η κώνωψ [Gr]
Durbuy, LUXEMBOURG ● Belgium
Etymology: The name of the genus Gymnodenia is formed from Greek words γυμνός | gymnos meaning "nude" and the suffix αδέν | adèn meaning "gland" and refers to the characteristics of the organs for secreting nectar. The specific Latin name conopsea – from the Greek κώνωψ | konops, meaning mosquito – literally means "like mosquito", probably because of the similarity of the long spur of the flower with the mouthparts of that insect.
Description: Thin plant, with height varying from 20 to 60 (-80) cm with two ovoidal bulbs. The stem is leafy and robust, with a striated surface.
The gray-green 5-12 leaves are linear - lanceolate, with a groove; the 2-5 inferior wide tipped, densely packed, 6-25 x 0,5-4, the upper ones acuminate, pointed, bract-like.
The inflorescence is dense, 5-25 cm, cylindrical with 20-80 flowers. The bracts are linear, often with violet hues, equaling the length of the ovary. The purplish vivid flowers are violet, rarely pale or white, usually with a pleasant smell. The sepals are 4-7 mm, ovate, wide tipped. The petals are shorter, more asymmetric, convergent (with the dorsal sepals forming a dome). The lip is 3,5-6 mm, trilobed, often with white center. The side lobes are ± equal length of the central, triangular lobe. The spur is 10-20 mm (1,5-2 times the length of the ovary), filamentous, arch downward, pointed, rarely with a wide tip.
Biology: These flowers bloom from May to August. They are hermaphrodite and almost exclusively pollinated by moths. The most common pollinators are Small Elephant Hawk-moth (Deilephila porcellus), Hummingbird Hawk-moth (Macroglossum stellatarum) (Sphingidae), Silver Y (Autographa gamma), Burnished Brass (Diachrysia chrysitis) en Large Yellow Underwing (Noctua pronuba) (Noctuidae). Fruit set is high with an average of 73 %. The seeds germination is conditioned by the presence of specific fungi.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and pastures, grassland and fens; siliceous and calcareous substrate, mildly damp and with low nutritional value, at an altitude of 0–2,800 metres.
Distribution: Europe with the exception of the Dinaric Alps; Northern and temperate Asia, eastward to China.
Widespread in mainland Greece, its southern limit at Sterea Ellada and very few locations at northern Peloponnesus. In abundance in subalpine and alpine meadows of most northern mountains of the country.
Wikipedia, Fragant Orchid
Spyros Tsiftsis, Greek Orchids