Lycaena (Heodes) virgaureae Linnaeus, 1758 ♂
Common names: Scarce Copper [En], Argus satiné, Cuivré alpin, Cuivré de la verge-d’or, Cuivré satiné [Fr], Morgenrood [Nl], Dukatenfalter [De], Mariposa manto de oro [Es], Δασική χαλκούχα λύκαινα [Gr], Ormanbakırgüzeli [Tu]
Olgunlar, ARTVİN ● Turkey
Description: The males have bright red-orange wings on the upper side; while the females have broader orange wings heavily marked with black spots.
Both sexes have yellowish brown wings below with a wavy red submarginal line, a few black dots and a variable number of white spots on hindwing.
The caterpillars are green. The eggs are white in color and somewhat larger than those of other Lycaena species.
Several subspecies have been described, including:
• L. v. montanus Meyer-Dür, 1851 – Alps in France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, and Austria at elevations of 1,700–2,000 metres.
• L. v. miegii Vogel, 1857 – North and central Spain at elevations of 600–1,600 m. – The male has a black cell spot on the upperside forewing and 3 or more spots in an arc near the apex.
Biology: A generation appears from mid-July to mid-September.
Eggs are laid on dried-out plant parts, for example on dry sorrel stems. The caterpillars are nocturnal and eat sorrel and other docks (Rumex sp.). The butterflies feed on blossoms of such plants as the ground-elder, Eupatorium, Valeriana, and burnet saxifrage.
Habitat: Mountain slopes, woodland edges, flower-rich, dry and damp meadows, at elevation of 1,000 to 2,000 meters.
Distribution: Central and Eastern Europe, Fennoscandia, northwest Greece, Turkey up to Mongolia. In Belgium there are a few threatened populations in the south of the country. It is not found, however, on the British Isles or the Netherlands. It can be found as far east as.
Baytaş A., 2007. A field guide to the butterflies of Turkey, NTV Yayınları, Istanbul.
Wikipedia, Scarce copper