Remiz pendulinus Linnaeus, 1758 (nest)
Common names: Eurasian Penduline Tit [En], Rémiz penduline [Fr], Buidelmees [Nl], Beutelmeise [De], Pendolino eurasiatico [It], Pájaro-moscón europeo [Es], Σακουλοπαπαδίτσα, Υφάντρα [Gr], Çulhakuşu [Tu]
IUCN Status: LC (Least Concern)
Livadia, SERRES ● Greece
Description: It is a small and relatively long-tailed passerine with conical pointed bill with straight culmen. The wingspan is 11 cm. Male of nominate race has black mask, brown back, grey head. Male has broader mask than female.
The juveniles have pale, uniform plumage, lacking mask altogether.
• R. p. pendulinus Linnaeus, 1758 – Denmark and S Sweden E in W Russia to R Ural, S to Iberia, France, lowland Italy and Sicily, Greece and Crete, W Turkey and foothills of NW Caucasus. Non-breeding in S Europe and locally N Africa (NW Morocco, NE Egypt).
• R. p. menzbieri Zarudny, 1913 – Turkey (except W), Armenia, Azerbaijan, NW Iran, NE Iraq, NE Lebanon and Syria, possibly also extreme N Israel.
• R. p. jaxarticus Severtsov, 1873 – E of Urals in W Siberia and N Kazakhstan E to NW foothills of Altai. Non-breeding probably from S Turkey and Iraq over S & E Iran E to Baluchistan (W Pakistan) and locally in C Asia.
• R. p. caspius Peltsam, 1870 – plains of SW Russia and NW Kazakhstan (R Volga–R Ural, W coastal lowlands of Caspian Sea and foothills of NE Caucasus.
Etymology: The genus name is the Polish word for the Eurasian penduline tit, and pendulinus is Latin for “hanging down”, which refers to its nest.
Biology: It feeds on small invertebrates, particularly the larvae of small insects and will also consume seeds. It can be monogamous, but is often polygamous or polyandrous and egg-laying begins in late April and continues to the beginning of July.
It builds an elaborate hanging nest. The nest is a large, free-hanging domed pouch-like structure, with a short downward-projecting entrance tube near the top. It is made of plant fibres mixed with plant down and animal hair and lined with plant down and occasionally feathers. Clutches are generally six to eight eggs.
Habitat: This species favours lakeside and riverine swampy vegetation and a good mixture of emergent vegetation, including reeds (Phragmites), with reedmace (Typha), poplars (Populus) and willows (Salix).
Distribution: It is relatively widespread throughout Eurasia. Northern populations of this species are highly migratory while southern populations are generally resident.The breeding range of the species in Western Europe experienced an expansion during the 1980s and 1990s. This was accompanied by an expansion of the species’ winter range and reached as far south as northern Morocco.
BirdLife International, 2017. Remiz pendulinus, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Wikipedia, Eurasian penduline tit
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/59955 on 27 June 2018).
NORD University, Norway