Emberiza schoeniclus Linnaeus, 1758 ♂
Emberiza schoeniclus Linnaeus, 1758 ♂
Syn.: Schoeniclus schoeniclus Linnaeus, 1758
Common names: Common Reed Bunting [En], Bruant des roseaux [Fr], Rietgors [Nl], Rohrammer [De], Migliarino di palude [It], Escribano Palustre [Es], Καλαμοτσίχλονο, Καλαμοπιτίλλα, Καλαμοτσίχλονο [Gr], Bataklık kiraz kuşu [Tu]
IUCN Status: Least Concern (LC)
Megalochori, SERRES ● Greece
Description: Breeding male easily recognized by all black head, prominent white moustache stripe and white collar. Rufous greater coverts in young birds.
Females and juveniles otherwise plain and rather characterless, and are easily confused with other rare buntings. Reed bunting however, lacks the pale eye-ring and plain cheeks of Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla), and the rufous rump of Rustic Bunting (Emberiza rustica).
A number of subspecies has been described.
E. s. lusitanica F. Steinbacher, 1930 – NW Spain and Portugal.
E. s. schoeniclus Linnaeus, 1758 – Northern Reed Bunting – Europe from Scandinavia E to Pechora Basin and Urals, S to British Is, most of France, W Austria, N Italy, and across SW Russia; winters S to N Africa and SW Asia.
E. s. passerina Pallas, 1771 – NW Siberia from lower R Ob E to lower R Yenisey and lower R Khatanga (in Taymyr); winters in S Asia E to N India and W China.
E. s. parvirostris Buturlin, 1910 – C Siberia (E to C Yakutia); winters in NW & N China.
E. s. pyrrhulina Swinhoe, 1876 – E Siberia (Kamchatka), Kuril Is and N Japan (Hokkaido); winters in C Japan, Korea and E China.
E. s. minor Middendorff, 1853 – Eastern Reed Bunting – Transbaikalia E to Russian Far East and NE China (Heilongjiang); winters in E China.
E. s. stresemanni F. Steinbacher, 1930 – E Austria, Hungary and N Serbia.
E. s. ukrainae Zarudny, 1917 – Ukraine and adjacent SW Russia.
E. s. incognita Zarudny, 1917 – SE European Russia E to N Kazakhstan.
E. s. pallidior E. J. O. Hartert, 1904 – Central Reed Bunting – SW Siberia (in basins of R Tobol and R Irtysh) E to L Baikal; winters in SW & SC Asia.
E. s. witherbyi Jordans, 1923 – Mediterranean coast of France, Sardinia, Balearic Is, Spain (except NW) and N Africa (NW Morocco).
E. s. intermedia Degland, 1849 – Italy and Adriatic coast S to NW Albania.
E. s. tschusii Reiser & Almásy, 1898 – R Danube in Bulgaria and Romania, and in N Black Sea region and Sea of Azov coast.
E. s. reiseri E. J. O. Hartert, 1904 – SE Albania, NW Greece, S Macedonia and W & C Turkey.
E. s. caspia Ménétries, 1832 – E Turkey E to E Transcaucasia and N & NW Iran, possibly also in Syria.
E. s. korejewi Zarudny, 1907 – SW & E Iran and S Turkmenistan.
E. s. pyrrhuloides Pallas, 1811 – Southern Reed Bunting – N Caspian Sea region (from R Terek) E to W Mongolia, L Balkhash (SE Kazakhstan) and C Tien Shan; non-breeding also to SW & C Asia.
E. s. harterti Sushkin, 1906 – extreme S Russia (S Tuva), extreme E Kazakhstan and extreme NW China (NW Xinjiang).
E. s. centralasiae E. J. O. Hartert, 1904 – Tarim Basin E to Lop Nur, in Xinjiang (W China).
E. s. zaidamensis Portenko, 1929 – Zaidam Depression, in NW Qinghai (W China).
Biology: The breeding season starts in early April and ends in August, depending on latitude and altitude. The species is mostly monogamous. The nest is built by the female, mostly on the ground, but sometimes in shrubs. The clutch, usually four or five eggs is incubated by both sexes. The chicks hatch after 12–15 days. They are fed by both parents and leave the nest after 9–12 days. The diet consists mainly of invertebrates during the breeding season and mainly seeds and other plant material at other times of the year.
Habitat: Generally this species inhabits marshy areas with dense low vegetation types in (small) wetlands, such as fens, bogs, reed marshes, riversides and other inland waters. In Siberia it breeds in willow thickets in floodplains. In some regions the species has colonised drier habitats such as young woodland and farmland (maize, cereals and oil-seed rape fields). Oil-seed rape fields have even become the most important breeding habitat for the species in lowland Britain.
Distribution: It breeds across Europe and much of temperate and northern Asia. Most birds migrate south in winter, but those in the milder south and west of the range are resident.
Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW)
Bird ID, Nord University
BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds.