Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Moncalvo, 2001
Family : Psathyrellaceae
Common names: Common ink cap, Inky cap, Tippler’s bane [En], Coprin noir d'encre [Fr], Grote kale inktzwam [Nl], Falten-Tintling [De]
Meise, BRABANT ● Belgium
Taxonomy: The common ink cap was first described by French naturalist Pierre Bulliard in 1786 as Agaricus atramentarius before being placed in the large genus Coprinus in 1838 by Elias Magnus Fries.
However, molecular analysis of DNA sequences showed that the most species belonged in the family Psathyrellaceae, distinct from the type species that belonged to the Agaricaceae. It was given its current binomial name Coprinopsis atramentaria in 2001 as a result.
Description: Measuring 3–7 cm (1.2–2.8 in) in diameter, the greyish or brownish-grey cap is initially bell-shaped, is furrowed, and later splits. The colour is more brownish in the centre of the cap, which later flattens before melting. The very crowded gills are free; they are whitish at first but rapidly turn black and easily deliquesce. The short stipe measures 7–17 cm (2.8–6.8 in) high by 1.5 cm in diameter, is grey in colour, and lacks a ring. The spore print is dark brown, and the almond-shaped spores measure 8–11 by 5–6 μm. The flesh is thin and pale grey in colour.
The grey-brown cap is initially bell-shaped before opening, after which, it flattens and disintegrates. The flesh is thin and the taste mild.
Caution: It can be eaten but is poisonous when consumed with alcohol – hence another common name, tippler's bane.
Consuming Coprinopsis atramentaria within a few hours of alcohol results in a "disulfiram syndrome". Symptoms include facial reddening, nausea, vomiting, malaise agitation, palpitations and tingling in limbs, and arise five to ten minutes after consumption of alcohol.
The fungus contains a cyclopropylglutamine compound called coprine. Its active metabolite, 1-aminocyclopropanol, blocks the action of an enzyme, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which breaks down acetaldehyde in the body. Acetaldehyde is an intermediate metabolite of ethanol and is responsible for most symptoms of a hangover; its effect on autonomic β receptors is responsible for the vasomotor symptoms.
Biology : Clumps of mushrooms arise after rain from spring to autumn.
Habitat: Commonly in urban and disturbed habitats such as vacant lots and lawns, as well as grassy areas.
Distribution: It occurs across the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, North America, and Asia, but has also been found in Australia and also in South Africa.
Wikipedia, Coprinopsis atramentaria